Botulinum Toxin / Psychological Treatment
Botulinum toxin is a type of treatment, called a neuromodulator, that was first approved by the FDA in 1989 and has been used for a wide range of medical conditions, such as excessive sweating, spastic bladder, crossed eyes, excessive blinking, headaches, and uncontrolled movement disorders. Although botulinum toxin is commonly used for medical conditions, it is probably most well-known for its cosmetic applications of reducing wrinkles. All of the different patented forms of botulinum toxin are approved for use in the glabella, which is the area between the eyebrows. In addition to the medical and cosmetic uses, there is some evidence that it can have psychological usages as well. There is increasing research to show whether or not botulinum toxin can be useful for people who suffer from depression.
Initially, it is easy to think that botulinum toxin could help with depression simply because the patients feel better about the way they look, but it can actually be deeper than that. A meta-analysis showed that botulinum toxin can offer significant improvement in symptoms of depression and is considered a safe adjunctive treatment for patients who are receiving pharmaceutical treatment for depression.
It has been suggested that the temporary paralysis of facial muscles may improve depression through a change of proprioceptive feedback mechanisms. This suggests that when a person is physically unable to use the muscles that are commonly used while they are frustrated or depressed, there is essentially a rewiring within the neurological connections that actually causes a reduction of depression. A single treatment with botulinum toxin in the frown lines of the glabella (between the eyebrows) may lead to a quick, strong, and sustained improvement in depressive symptoms.
It is also possible for botulinum toxin to indirectly help reduce depression by lessening symptoms of difficult or frustrating conditions. Botulinum toxin is frequently used to treat migraine headaches, and numerous studies have shown that it can improve quality of life along with other psychiatric complaints, including depression, for patients with these debilitating types of headaches.[4-6] Women with multiple sclerosis were given botulinum toxin injections to improve sexual function, and the researchers found that a side effect of treatment was that patients had reduced depression.
With ongoing research on the use of botulinum toxin for the treatment of depression, we are likely to discover the physiologic reasons for the benefits. For now, we can simply recognize that some people either directly or indirectly have a reduction in symptoms of depression with the use of botulinum toxin. As with any form of treatment, there are potential side effects with its use.
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